Electroencephalography is the neurophysiological measurement of electrical activity in the brain as recorded by electrodes placed on the scalp or, in special cases, subdurally or in the cerebral cortex. The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and represent a summation of post-synaptic potentials from a large number of neurons.
An event-related potential (ERP) is any stereotyped electrophysiological response to an internal or external stimulus. In simple terms it is any measured brain response that is the direct result of a thought process or perception.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) provides the hemodynamic means to assess neural activation. Blood flow changes linked to neural activation, can be localized with extreme precision. Joining the temporal precision of the EEG with the spatial resolution of the fMRI, is a cutting edge tool in Neuroscience and combining these correctly, is what we do.
Functional Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is among the most recent additions in the Neuroscientist’s tool chest. It provides the ability to measure blood flow changes around the brain without the need for magnetic fields or currents. Its portability permits the quantification of hemodynamic changes in places not feasible for researchers in the past. Explore how you can use NIRS in your research.
Sleep is generally characterized by a reduction in voluntary body movement, decreased to little reaction to external stimuli, loss of consciousness, a reduction in auditory receptivity, an increased rate of anabolism (the synthesis of cell structures), and a decreased rate of catabolism (the breakdown of cell structures). The capability for arousal from sleep is a protective mechanism and also necessary for health and survival.
Several EEG research applications require that a video of the subject is recorded together with the EEG. Particularly in sleep research, work with babies and in mobile EEG applications, combining video and EEG recordings is a standard procedure.
With EEG source analysis we attempt to bridge the gap between surface EEG data and the respective neural source generators: EEG dynamics reflect the collective action (superposition) of many neuronal systems distributed across the brain. Source analysis disentangles the different neuronal sources and gives you a hint where and when it happened. Information pathways in the brain can be studied by using either the reconstructed activation waveforms or by time-frequency analysis. Source analysis can identify the brain regions involved in different tasks and depending on data quality and model quality, yield a precise localization of the generators in both space and time.
Mobile / wireless EEG applications and MoBI (Mobile Brain/Body Imaging) have become increasingly popular over the past few years. More and more scientists wish to push the boundaries of their EEG research and get answers to questions like: What does the brain do when the subject is moving (e.g. during a skydive or when running or cycling)?
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method for exciting neurons in the brain. The excitation is caused by electric currents induced in the tissue by rapidly alternating magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction). In this way, brain activity may be triggered or modulated without surgery or externally applied electrodes. This technique is used to study the circuitry and connectivity of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, known as rTMS, may produce longer-lasting changes in electro-cortical function.
EEG (or ERP) recording during TMS stimulation is an important technique providing support in the determination of cognitive processes. TMS stimulation induces a strong electrical field that can saturate the recording amplifiers for longer periods. Furthermore, even if the amplifier does not reach a saturation point, the TMS pulse induces an artifact in the EEG data that can last for hundreds of milliseconds.
Brain Products offers software for acquisition, analysis and online real-time data processing purposes. The stability of the programs and algorithms, ease of use and unparalleled support are the highest priority. Unlimited updates provide you with the latest enhancements – all free of charge. Discover the great variety of amazing processing options to boost your research work with effective and simple processing!
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an imaging technique which measures the magnetic fields produced by neuronal activity in the brain. It utilise’s extremely sensitive devices – superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to achieve this.
Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) or brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are early – short-latency – EEG components, evoked by acoustical stimulation.
The name refers to the generators: these components are mainly – however not exclusively – originated from the brainstem, relatively far away from the EEG electrodes. Furthermore the ABRs are characterized by small amplitude – below 1 µV – and short latency – five to seven peaks within 10 ms.
In order to teach neuroscience effectively, it is vital to have the right tools. Theoretical instruction should ideally be followed by practical sessions to broaden and imbed the knowledge acquired theoretically and, to experience the basics of EEG recording and analysis and processing steps first hand. Traditionally, training equipment used constitutes PowerPoint presentations for theory as well as an amplifier borrowed from the EEG lab for practical recordings at times when an amplifier is available. This necessarily means that regular lab ‘down time’ is necessary if dedicated training is to be provided on an ongoing basis. We believe that our special education solution (hard and software) will diminish lab ‘down time’ as well as adding value to both theoretical and practical presentations. We offer affordable training amplifiers as well as special versions of our software.
With improved foundational learning, with minimal sacrifice of lab time, teaching will be easier and progress and results achieved in record time.
… is the result of autonomous or voluntary neural processes. Quantifying signals such as ECG, EMG, EOG, GSR, respiration, or others can be key contributors to answering central questions in Neuroscience. Peripherial signals can be recorded on their own or synchronized with cortical activity.